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What Is an Economic Order Quantity (EOQ)? | Speed Commerce

What Is an Economic Order Quantity (EOQ)?

3PL Glossary > Economic Order Quantity (EOQ)

What Is an Economic Order Quantity (EOQ)?

Economic order quantity (EOQ) is a fundamental inventory management model that helps businesses determine the optimal order quantity for their products. Developed to balance the costs associated with holding inventory and ordering more units, EOQ aims to minimize total inventory costs. The model takes into account two primary types of costs: carrying costs (associated with holding inventory) and ordering costs (related to placing and receiving orders). The goal is to identify the order quantity that minimizes the combined costs of holding inventory and placing orders.

What Are Examples of Economic Order Quantity?

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The EOQ model is based on several assumptions, including constant demand for the product, consistent ordering and holding costs, and instantaneous replenishment of inventory upon order. The formula for calculating EOQ involves variables such as the demand rate, ordering cost, and holding cost per unit.

The result is the order quantity that minimizes the total costs associated with inventory management. EOQ provides a valuable guideline for businesses to optimize their inventory levels, avoid excess holding costs, and reduce the frequency of ordering, thus minimizing ordering costs. While EOQ is a useful model, it's important to recognize its assumptions and consider real-world factors that may impact inventory management.


Yes, EOQ can be used for products with fluctuating demand, but it assumes a constant demand rate. For products with variable demand, businesses may need to adjust the model or use safety stock to account for uncertainties.

No, the EOQ formula may vary depending on the specifics of each business, industry, or product type. While the general formula remains consistent, the values for demand rate, ordering costs, and holding costs will differ based on the characteristics of the particular situation.

Not necessarily. While EOQ helps identify an order quantity that minimizes total inventory costs, other factors such as storage constraints, market demand fluctuations, and supplier constraints may impact overall costs. Achieving EOQ provides an optimal order size, but businesses need to consider the broader operational context.

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